Working Papers

  1. Using Digitized Newspapers to Address Measurement Error in Historical Data (with Joung Yeob Ha and Randall Walsh)
    – NBER working paper no. 29808
    here. Read our VoxEU article here.
    – revise & resubmit at the Journal of Economic History
  2. New Area- and Population-based Geographic Crosswalks for U.S. Counties and Congressional Districts, 1790-2020 (with Patrick Testa and Liyang Zhou)
    – Crosswalks, teaching material, and replication files can be downloaded here. SSRN working paper here.
  3. Wars, Taxation and Representation: Evidence from Five Centuries of German History (with Sascha O. Becker, Eric Melander, and Luigi Pascali)
    – CEPR working paper no. 15601 here.

Work in Progress

  1. The Confederate Diaspora (with Samuel Bazzi, Martin Fiszbein, Thomas Pearson, and Patrick Testa)
  2. The Economic and Ideological Foundations of the Great White Migration (with Samuel Bazzi, Martin Fiszbein, Thomas Pearson, and Patrick Testa)
  3. World War II and the Roots of the Civil Rights Movement (with Silvia Farina, Marco Tabellini, and Sarah Walker)
  4. Leadership and Team Cohesion under Flying Bullets: Captains and their Companies in the Civil War (with Christian Dippel)
  5. Wars and the Labor Market Outcomes of Minorities in the U.S., chapter in preparation for the Routledge Handbook on the Economic History of War


  1. The Other Great Migration: Southern Whites and the New Right, Quarterly Journal of Economics, forthcoming (with Samuel Bazzi, Martin Fiszbein, Thomas Pearson, and Patrick Testa)
  2. Fatherless: The Long-Term Effects of Losing a Father in the U.S. Civil War, Journal of Human Resources, forthcoming (with Yannick Dupraz)
  3. Churches as Social Insurance: Oil Risk and Religion in the U.S. South, Journal of Economic History, forthcoming (with Patrick Testa)
  4. Discrimination, Migration, and Economic Outcomes: Evidence from World War I, Review of Economics and Statistics, forthcoming (with Price Fishback) [Cato policy brief here]
  5. World War II and Black Economic Progress, 2022, Journal of Labor Economics, Vol. 40(4), pp. 1053-1091
  6. Sundown Towns and Racial Exclusion: The Southern White Diaspora and the “Great Retreat”, 2022, AEA Papers and Proceedings, Vol. 112, pp. 234-238 (with Samuel Bazzi, Martin Fiszbein, Thomas Pearson, and Patrick Testa)
  7. Causal mediation analysis in instrumental-variables regressions, 2020, Stata Journal, Vol. 20(3), pp. 613-626 (with Christian Dippel and Stephan Heblich) [For data and code type “findit ivmediate” in Stata.]
  8. Consequences of Forced Migration: A Survey of Recent Findings, 2019, Labour Economics, Vol. 59, pp. 1-16 (with Sascha O. Becker) [Supplementary material available here.]
  9. Voluntary Programs to Encourage Diffusion: The Case of the Combined Heat-and-Power Partnership, 2014, The Energy Journal, Vol. 35(1), pp. 161-173 (with Ian Lange)